Peanut, along with other organic groundnut variety, is an important oilseed crop. The botanical name of groundnut is Arachis hypogea, which is from the Greek words erokis meaning pod, and hypogea meaning underground.
There is no denying the fact that all sections of people like peanuts. And how can we not when they play an important role in providing a balanced diet.
For abundant production of groundnut, loamy, and sandy loam soil with proper drainage and high calcium and medium organic matter, whose pH value is between 5.5 to 7.0 are suitable. The preparation of the field for this crop depends on the type of soil, soil moisture, and monsoon.
- TG 37A
It is a jhumka variety. Which is ready to ripen in 95-98 days. The average yield of dry beans is 28-30 quintals per hectare. This variety is moderately resistant to early and late blight disease, groundnut bud virus disease, collar rot, and stem rot disease.
- D. H. 86
Its 100 grains weigh 48 grams. In this variety of beans, the grain ratio is 70% and the oil content is 48 to 50%.
- Pratap Peanut 1
It is a jhumka variety. Which gets ready in 98-105 days. The average yield of dry beans is 25 -30 quintals per hectare. The proportion of grains in its beans is 65-68% and the oil content is 49-51%. This variety is moderately resistant to early and late blight click virus disease, collar rot, and stem rot.
- Pratap Peanut-2
It is ready to ripen in 95-99 days. The average yield of its dry beans is 18-28 q/ha. The proportion of its beans is about 67-70% and the oil content in the grains is 48%. This short maturing variety is moderately resistant to tobacco caterpillar, foliar borer, parasitic insects and strip spot disease, and viral diseases.
- Pratap Raj Groundnut
This variety matures in 95 to 99 days and gives a yield of dry beans up to 17 to 25 quintals per hectare. Its 100 grains weigh 40 grams and the oil content in its grains is 48-50%.
Manures and fertilizers
These materials must be twenty kilogram per hectare in groundnut field with the Nitrogen at about 50-60 kg. Also keep in mind that you should use Phosphorus at the time of sowing. Aside from this, before final ploughing in the irrigated area, mixing 250 kg gypsum per hectare is necessary. And as for the time of preparation of the field, allot 8 to 10 tonnes of cow dung per hectare.
Organic Groundnut Seed treatment
Remove the seeds from the selected beans by hand or machine about 1 week before sowing. Do not use old seeds for sowing as their germination capacity is reduced, due to which a sufficient number of seedlings is not available. To control seed-borne diseases, sow seeds with 6 g Trichoderma per kg seed or 3 g Thiram 75% WP or 2 g Captan 50% WP or 2 g Mancozeb 75% WP or 2 g Carbendazim 50% WP. Must be pre-treated. For the prevention of white braid, 1 liter of chloroperiphos 20 EC. Treat by mixing at the rate of 40 kg seed.
Peanut seed rate
Use 100 kg seed of Jhumka variety or 150 kg pod per hectare. For these varieties, row to row distance should be kept 30 cm and plant to plant distance 10 cm. The sowing of Zayed groundnut should be done between 15th February to 15th March.
Generally, groundnut requires 450 to 650 ml of water. Its crop is sensitive to soil moisture till the stage of flowering, needle formation, pod formation, and their development and maturity stage. Therefore, for good yield and efficient water use, irrigation should be done at 25% of the available soil water capacity at sensitive stages and 50% at other stages. For weed control in the field, immediately after sowing, sprinkle 500 grams of active ingredient dissolved in 500 liters of water. Complete weeding and hoeing till the harvest of 20 days. After one month of sowing, apply soil on the roots of Jhumka variety plants. Do not do hoeing at all after peanut needles start to form.
- Thorn insect
For the prevention of insect pests, collect them selectively in the fields and destroy them by adding kerosene mixed in water (5%) or by spraying or sprinkling one of the following. Methyl Parathion 50 EC 750 ml or quinalphos 25 E.C. 625 ml or chlorpyrifos 20 BC. Spraying of 1 liter per hectare or Carbaryl 5% @ 25 kg per hectare.
- Termite pest
If a termite infestation is seen in a standing crop, give 4 liters of chlorpyrifos 20 EC per hectare in water with irrigation.
- Collar rot disease
For its control, sow by treating 6 grams of Trichoderma culture per kg of seed. At the time of seed treatment, be careful that the skin of the seed does not come off.
- Tikka disease
This disease often comes in groundnut. The disease appears after 35-40 days of crop growth. This disease causes dark brown or earthy spots on the leaves of the plants. For its control, take spray of 500 gm Carbendazim 50% WP or 1.5% per hectare with Cozeb 75% WP or Xineb 75% WP. Do this spray twice at an interval of 10-15 days.
- Jaundice disease
In the fields where there is jaundice disease in groundnut crop, apply 250 kg sulfur or green kasis per hectare before sowing once in 3 years. In its absence, spray 0.1% solution of sulfuric acid once before flowering and second outside after flowering.
Using scientific methods, an average yield of 20-25 quintals per hectare can be obtained in irrigated areas of groundnut.
If you liked this article, kindly check out our other posts as well. Happy farming!