It’s a Cow Farm: Best Dairy Cow Feed Recipes & Diet Manual

It is evident that new cattle owners open dairy farms, but their dairy farms are not able to succeed. Unfortunately, the main reason for the previous statement is their lack of knowledge about a balanced diet for milk animals. Fortunately, though, this article is our endeavor to present it in a hopeful manner in common language. After all, it’s a cow farm that these farmers are in business for.

And to start us off, the food (grain and fodder) that owners feed to the animal in 24 hours, in which food elements are present to meet their needs, is an animal feed. Now the diet in which all the essential nutrients of the animal are available in proper quantity is the balanced diet.

Balanced diet

A balanced diet is a food item that fulfills the prescribed nutritional needs of a particular animal for 24 hours. Too, a balanced diet calls for a specific ratio of carbon, fat, and protein. In the balanced ratio, one can observe the quantity of different substances according to the season and animal weight, and production capacity.

Moreover, one can define a ration as the amount of food consumed by a buffalo in 24 hours. This dairy ratio will be either a balanced or unbalanced one. Speaking of the latter, an unbalanced ration is one that fails to provide the buffalo with the required amount of nutrients in 24 hours, whereas a balanced ration provides the ‘right’ buffalo with the ‘right’ quantity of nutrients at the ‘right time. Additionally in a balanced diet, the amount of proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, and vitamins must be in accordance to the requirement of the animal.

Breaking down the diet

The diet of the cow/buffalo should always be in mind. For instance, the dry matter, digestive protein, and total digestive elements can be available to it as per the requirement. First of all, dry matter consumption in buffalo varies from 2.5 to 3.0 kg per 100 kg body weight per day. This means that a buffalo weighing 400 kg needs 10-12 kg of the dry matter daily. If we then divide this dry matter into fodder and feed, about one-third of the dry matter should be fed in the form of feed.

Furthermore, this calculation becomes very difficult when we calculate the amount of digestive protein and total digestive elements according to production and other requirements. One of the main reasons for this is that it is almost impossible for the farmer to determine the amount of digestive protein and total digestive elements in the feed that is fed to the animal. This is because the amount of digestive protein and total digestibility is different for each feed. It varies according to the age/maturity of the fodder.

Many times, depending on the availability, many types of fodder have to be fed together. The farmer never feeds the fodder by weighing it. The easiest way in these circumstances is to calculate the amount of fodder fed by the farmer assuming that the animal gets enough fodder. Now according to the requirement of the animal, the farmer can limit the amount of deficiency in digestive protein and total digestive elements by giving a feed mixture. In this way the diet fed to the cow/buffalo becomes balanced.

How to make balanced feed mixture?

It is not enough to know the names of the substances used in the animal feed mixture. Basically, this is because the knowledge is not enough to calculate the ratio of animals. Keep in mind that it is also necessary to have knowledge of the digestive elements obtained from it like crude protein, total digestive element, and metabolic energy. Only then will it be possible to make a balanced grain mixture on the basis of the elements found in the food. Consequently, farmers can make this grain mixture in any of the ways listed below. But, of course, it also depends on what is cheap and easily available.

Method to make hundred kilos of balanced diet

Grain (Maize, Barley, Wheat, Bajra): Its quantity should be about 35 percent. And whether it is 35 percent of the given grains together or if there is only one type of grain alone, then give 35 percent of the dose. In addition to this, the number of cakes (mustard cakes, groundnut cakes, cottonseed cakes, linseed cakes) should be about 32 kg. Luckily, one can simply mix these cakes in the grain. Apart from the cakes, the quantity of bran (wheat bran, gram powder, pulses, rice brain) is about 35 kg. The number of mineral salts, about 2 kilos, and about 1 kg of all these can be fed to the animal by mixing them according to the written quantity.


  • Maize/Barley/Oat 40 kg
  • Cottonseed oil 16 kg
  • Groundnut oil 15 kg
  • Wheat bran 25 kg
  • Mineral mixture 02 kg
  • Common salt 01 kg
  • Total 100 kg


  • Barley 30 kg
  • Mustard cake 25 kg
  • Cottonseed cake 22 kg
  • Wheat bran 20 kg
  • Mineral mixture 02 kg
  • Common salt 01 kg

Total 100 kg


  • Maize or barley 40 kg quantity
  • Groundnut cake 20 kg 
  • Pulses pulverized 17 kg
  • Rice polish 20 kg
  • Mineral mixture 02 kg
  • Common Salt 01 Kg

Total 100 Kg


  • Wheat 32 kg quantity
  • of mustard Khal 10 kg
  • groundnut Khal 10 kg
  • cottonseed of Khal 10 kg
  • Crushed 10 kg of pulses
  • Chaucer 25kg
  • Mineral Mixture 02 kg
  • Salt 01 kg

Total 100 kg


  • Wheat, barley or millet 20 kg 
  • cottonseed oil 27 kg
  • grain or gram powder 5 kg
  • cottonseed 15 kg
  • flour bran 20 kg
  • mineral mixture 02 kg
  • Salt 01 kg

Total 100 kg

Any balanced diet given above can also be fed by kneading it with straw. Along with this, it is necessary to give at least 4-5 kg ​​of green fodder.

Properties and benefits of balanced diet and grain mixture

  • It is delicious and nutritious.
  • More digestible.
  • Cheaper than Khal, cottonseed or gram alone.
  • Maintains good health of animals.
  • Provides the ability to ward off disease.
  • Increases milk and ghee also.
  • The buffalo does not kill.
  • Buffaloes give milk for a long time.
  • Provides early puberty to the katde or katris.

How much to feed balanced diet and feed mixture

Although the amount of an animal’s diet is in accordance with the need and work of its body and by calculating it on the basis of the nutrients found in the available food items, to save the animal owners from the difficulty of calculation work, adopt the thumb rule. Doing this is far more convenient, after all.

According to this, we can broadly divide the diet of adult milch animals into three classes.

  1. diet for survival
  2. food for production
  3. diet for pregnancy

Diet for subsistence

This diet is the amount of food for the animal to maintain its own body. Animals can then use this to maintain their body temperature in the proper range: essential body functions like digestion, blood transport, respiration, excretion, metabolism, etc. Due to this, the weight of his body also remains stable at a limit.

Whether the animal is in production or not, farmers should implement this diet, in the absence of which the animal starts becoming weak, which affects its productivity and fertility. So, farmers need to ensure the quantity of tudi or dry grass for indigenous cows is 4 kg and for hybrid cows and pure breeds, this quantity varies from 4 to 6 kg.

Along with this, a mixture of feed is also given to the animal, the quantity of which is kept from 1 to 1.25 kg for local indigenous cows and 2.0 kg for hybrid cows, pure breed indigenous cows, or buffalo.

  • Balanced diet for production

To get maximum production from animals, they need nutritious fodder in sufficient quantity. Production feed is the quantity of animal feed that is given to the animal for its milk production in addition to the food given for subsistence.

For local cow (native) an additional 1 kg of feed should be given for subsistence feed per 2.5 kg of milk production, while for hybrid/native milch cows/buffalo this quantity is given per 2 kg of milk. On the other hand, if green fodder is available in sufficient quantity, 1 kg of feed can be reduced by giving every 10 kg of good quality green fodder.

This will then reduce the cost of animal feed somewhat. The animal must be given clean water at least thrice a day for milk production and lifelong sustenance.

  • Balanced Diet for Pregnancy

In the pregnancy of the animal, additional food is given to it from the 5th month because after this period the growth of the unborn child starts happening very fast. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to give this diet for proper growth and development of the child in the womb and for proper milk production in the next heifer of a cow/buffalo.

Thus, 1.25 kg for local cows (indigenous) and 1.75 kg for crossbreed cows and buffaloes should be given. For this, the quantity of 3 kg in cattle of Zebu breed and 4-5 kg ​​in hybrid cows and buffaloes should be given in addition to the subsistence requirement of the animal. This will then allow the animal to produce maximum milk according to its capacity in the next sheifer.

1. For body care

• 1.5 kg per day for cow and 2 kg per day for buffalo

2. For milk animals

• Cow 1 kg of grain for every 2.5 liters of milk
• Buffalo 1 kg of feed for every 2 liters of milk

3. For pregnant cow or buffalo

• A cow or buffalo pregnant above 6 months should be given 1 to 1.5 kg of grain per day.

4. For calves or calves

• 1 kg to 2.5 kg grains should be given daily according to their age or weight.

5. For Bullocks

• 2 to 2.5 kg per day for farm buffaloes
• 1 kg per day for non-working bullocks.

Note: When green fodder is available in sufficient quantity, the total payable feed given above can be reduced from 1/2 to 1 kg.

Use of straw

Another key point to keep in mind is that most of the straw is used in Ray. And alongside straw, Rice bran, bran, and gram must be given to the animal for proper nutrition. Farmers can even include green fodder in the diet, which is better than dry fodder.

On another note, the weight of a good breed Murrah buffalo or Holstein Friesian cow is 450 to 500 kg. The animal will then need 2.5 kg dry fodder for every 100 kg weight for good health and adequate milk production. And to ensure this, about 12.5 kg should be included in a day’s diet of the animal. Correspondingly, the ratio of dry and green fodder should be equal to 50:50.

When the animal is getting ready for milk, it is necessary to give dry fodder, green fodder, and grain in its balanced diet. Being that, dry fodder is 6.5 kg, green fodder is about 30 kg and grain is one kg, all should be given every day. When the animal becomes capable of giving milk, keep dry fodder and green fodder the same, but increase the grain to four kg and during pregnancy, reduce the grain to two kg.

Green Fodder

Animals eat green fodder with gusto. It is digested faster than dry fodder. Also, it increases milk production. Some of this includes Sudan grass, millet, sorghum, corn, oats, and berseem, etc. Simultaneously, animal husbandry should include both porridge or pulses in green fodder. Owing to this, the deficiency of protein in animals can be easily met.

Fodder required at an interval of eight to 10 hours

Include dry fodder, green fodder, and animal feed in the diet so that all the nutrients can be found in the right amount. Legumes vegetables are also beneficial. Firstly, feed by mixing berseem, rijka, guar, etc. in dry fodder. If these beans are fed without fodder, there is a possibility of disturbances in the digestive system and malaise.

The animal drinks 35 to 40 liters of water in a day. Therefore clean water should always be available. Aside from water, protein in the diet is essential for the growth and good health of animals. Another would ve carbohydrates as they provide strength and help to keep the body warm. It is essential for health and proper reproduction. Boiling broken wheat, jowar, or millet porridge mixed with salt, jaggery, or molasses and giving it with cake, mineral salts can give good production.

ISI prescribed animal balanced diet standards

  • 20-21 percent protein
  • 2.5-3 percent lubrication
  • 1 percent calcium
  • 0.5 percent phosphorus
  • 4% sed silica
  • 12 percent fiber
  • 3% mineral salt
  • 5000 IU/kg Vitamin A/D
  • 2.5-3 percent lubrication
  • 1 percent calcium
  • 0.5 percent phosphorus
  • 4% sed silica
  • 12 percent fiber
  • 3% mineral salt
  • 5000 IU/kg Vitamin A/D

With all of that said, check out Homestead Tractor’s blog section for more and everything farming!

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