Karela ( Bitter Gourd ) is a vine vegetable you can plant on your organic farm. It is also known by other names like bitter gourd and bitter gourd. The ascending or creeping soft vines of bitter gourd grow on bushes and fences on their own or in the field.
Its leaves have 5-7 segments, while the flowers are yellow. Despite being bitter in taste, it is a tasty and digestible herb. In medicine, the use of a creeper or leaf is beneficial in curing phlegm-yellowing and fever, worm, blood purifier, and vata, etc.
Bitter gourds need a hot and humid climate. These vegetables tolerate with much but there is loss due to frost.
You can grow them in different types of soil. But light loamy soil with proper water holding capacity is best for its successful cultivation.
Well, the indifferent Ph. The land of value is good for cultivation. The land along the rivers is suitable for the cultivation of bitter gourd.
You can even cultivate it in some acidic soils.
Plow the field first, when tillage becomes fit, then plow it. After this, apply the cultivator twice. Lastly, perform weeding after each plowing.
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Seed sowing and seed quantity
5 to 7 kg seed per hectare is sufficient. You should sow 2 – 3 seeds from one place at a depth of 2.5-5.0 cm. It is also crucial to soak the seeds in water for 24 hours before sowing, due to which the germination is fast and good.
You should sow from 15th February to 30th February (summer season) and from 15th July to 30th July (rainy season)
Sowing has two ways:
- by direct seed
- by plantation
Manures and Fertilizers
In order to get a good yield in a bitter gourd crop, it is necessary to have organic manure, compost manure. For this, prepare a mixture of about 40 to 50 quintals of cow dung and 50 kg of neem cake in one hectare of land, mix them well and sell this mixture in equal quantity in the field before planting it in the field.
After this, plow the field in a good way, prepare the field and sow it. When the crop is 25-30 days old, mix neem decoction with cow urine and mix it well and spray it. Spray every 15 days interval. Or 25 to 30 days of dung manure or composted manure in the field 25-30 days before sowing and 50 kg DAP in the drains before sowing. Mix in the soil at the rate of 50 kg muriate of potash per hectare. Apply rest of nitrogen 30 kg urea at flowering and fruiting stage after 20-25 days of sowing.
The irrigation of bitter gourd depends on the environment, soil type, etc. Irrigation of summer crops should be at an interval of 5 days, whereas irrigation of rainy crops depends on rainfall.
Cutting, Sorting and Supporting Scaffolding
Bitter gourd harvesting is very important to get a high yield and maintain the quality of fruits. Like in bitter gourd, cutting all the branches from 3 to 7 Ghaths increases the quality.
It is very important to give support to bitter gourd vegetables. Supports can be iron angles or bamboo poles scaffolds. You can raise your plants through scaffolding by tying wire to the upper end of the pillars. To provide support, the distance between two pillars or angles is at 2 meters but varies according to the crop. For bitter gourd, keep 4.50 feet.
Weeds grow among the plants. You need to uproot and destroy them. Clean them afterwards and make sure to weed from time to time. It is also advisable to apply soil around the first roots.
Pest control in bitter gourd
The infestation of this insect starts when two leaves appear on the plants. It eats insects, leaves and flowers. The caterpillar of this insect bites the roots of plants inside the ground.
Boil 15 liters of cow urine at least 40- 50 days old in a copper vessel with 5 kg of datura leaves and stem. When only 7.5 liters of cow urine is remaining, take it off the fire, cool it and filter it. Then, prepare and spray the mixture on the crop at 3 liters per pump.
This fly enters the fruits on your organic farm and lays eggs there. The larva emerges after the eggs, which ruins the fruit. This fly causes more damage, especially to the Kharif crop.
For the prevention of fruit fly in your organic farm, boil at least 40-50 liters of cow urine in a copper vessel with 5 kg of datura leaves and stem. After the remaining 7.5 liters of cow urine, take it off the fire, cool it and filter the mixture, prepare 3 liters per pump and spray it in the crop.
It causes great damage to bitter gourd plants. It lives underground and eats the roots of plants. Due to which the plants dry up.
For its prevention, use neem manure in the soil.
The disease is caused by a fungus called Erysiphi sicoracearum and white, rough and circular webs appear on the stem, which later increases in size and become brown in color. The entire leaves turn yellow and dry up, the growth of the plants stops. But you can avoid such discolorations in your organic farm.
At least 40 to 50 days old, keep 15 liters of cow urine in a copper vessel and boil 5 kg of datura leaves with stalks. When 7.5 liters of cow urine is left, remove it from the fire, cool it and filter it. After preparing the mixture, 3 liters per pump should be sprayed in the crop.
This disease is caused by cholestatroicum species. Due to this disease red black spots are formed on the leaves and fruits. These spots later get mixed together. This disease spreads through seeds.
The seed should be treated with cow urine or neem oil before sowing.
Fruit tea should be harvested at a small and tender stage. Usually, the fruits are ready for harvesting 60 to 90 days after ripening. Keep plucking fruits at an interval of 3 days.
The yield of bitter gourd is 100 to 120 quintals per hectare.
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