The main purpose of protected farming (i.e. small tomato greenhouse) is to produce horticultural crops, especially vegetables (tomato, capsicum, cucumber) and fruit crops by keeping them safe from adverse environmental conditions and insects, virus diseases etc. Today, due to the increasing industrialization in the country, the entire pressure of urbanization is also falling on the arable land and especially this pressure is affecting the cultivable land around the big cities.
Similarly, the water of the agricultural sector is also continuously under pressure from this development. There is full potential for efficient use of natural resources like land and water through protected farming.
This technology is certainly a very strong foundation for plant protection. By this, it is possible to reduce the use of indiscriminate insecticides for the control of various insects and diseases to a great extent. Apart from this, protection of crops to a great extent from extreme cold, heat, hail, rain, and strong wind is also possible.
Vegetable production can increase the productivity of vegetables in their fields by 3 to 5 times as well as increase their quality. Not only this, huge savings in the number of natural resources such as groundwater and fertilizers are also possible through protected farming. Protected production is the only way to increase the duration of crops and grow them before or after the season.
This technique can prove to be very useful for young farmers cultivating in urban areas. But the economic significance of protected farming and the protected structure and production technology for cultivation depends on the climate of the particular area and the market available for high-quality vegetables.
By adopting this technology, unemployed youth of rural areas can get employment opportunities. Can earn more profit than farming in open fields. Not only this, it is possible to attract most of the rural youth without interest in doing traditional farming today, towards this type of latest farming. Today, in view of the increasing demand for high-quality vegetables in major cities of the country and abroad, even before the main season and off-season, it becomes necessary for our vegetable growers to adopt such protected vegetable production technology.
Type and cost of greenhouse:
One of the main types of small tomato greenhouses is a naturally air vented, zero energy greenhouse, which costs about Rs 700-800 per square meter to build.
Irrigation System for Green House:
Low-pressure irrigation system in which 1000 liters of water tank is on a platform 1.5 to 2.0 meters high and it is fully capable of irrigating 1000 square meters of greenhouse area.
Varieties suitable for tomato production in greenhouse:
For tomato cultivation in the greenhouse, make sure to only select unlimited growing varieties whose fruit weight is about 100 to 120 grams and they contain all the important guns for the high market should be. Angoorlata, Pant Bahar, Arka Rakshak have the best results and it is suitable for long-duration 9 to 10 production in a full greenhouse in Kis. And among the different varieties of cherry tomatoes, Cherry Tomato-1 is also an important variety.
Tomato Plant Requirement and Plant Growing:
For tomato production in the greenhouse, you need to grow the seedlings in protected areas and ensure that they are completely virus-free and healthy and seedlings become transplantable about 25 to 30 days after sowing. In this way, you can plant about 2400 to 2600 plants in a 1000 square meter greenhouse. The beds are always above the ground and the length of the beds completely depends on the design of the greenhouse. But keep in mind that the available space in the greenhouse should be for crop production.
Harvesting, pruning and support etc. Crop activities:
Tomato plants are in wraps 20 to 25 days after transplanting with ropes tied with overhead wires running parallel to the length of the beds at a height of about 8 feet over the beds as well as all but one main branch in the plants. Removing other branches are by pruning the cuttings.
This process of harvesting happens at an interval of about 15 to 25 days as per the requirement. Allot proper care as to not damage the flower clusters arriving during pruning or wrapping. When the plants grow to the height of the overhead wires, removing them should happen one to two times at each pruning. The feet are in a lower position and thus establishing the plants around the beds according to a process.
Pollination of Tomatoes in Greenhouse:
Tomato being a self-pollinated crop, it still requires special auxiliary pollination in the greenhouse. The main reason for this is that due to the lack of airflow in the greenhouse, the pollen grains do not come out of the anther, so either vibrators or air blowers help the work of pollination in the greenhouse. But in Israel or many western countries, greenhouse tomato crops use bumblebees, which are the most efficient pollinators for greenhouse tomato production.
High-speed wind blowers are helpful in pollination by running them at medium speed in the morning from 8:00 to 9:00 in the summer and from 9:00 to 10:00 in the winter season. Get good results. These types of devices are both electric or battery operated and one person can do the work of a complete courtyard in a greenhouse of 1000 square meters in about one to one and a half hours.
Irrigation and Fertilizer:
Generally, manure, fertilizer, and water to the crop depend on the type of land, season, and stage of the crop. By the way, water the crop continuously at an interval and along with it a solution of completely water-soluble fertilizers which is generally with nitrogen phosphorus. Also, add potash in the ratio 5:3:5 and in different quantities at different stages.
By the way, from transplanting till flowering, give 4.0 to 5.0 cubic meters of water per 1000 square meter in one go. Then, do the irrigation thrice a week in the summer season and twice a week in the winter season. Along with this, give 1.0 liter of the above solution per cubic meter of water in irrigation.
From flowering to fruiting, the quantity of water is 5.0 to 6.0 cubic meters. In addition, give fertilizers at the rate of 2.0 to 2.5 liters / cubic meter per square meter through the irrigation system. And remember, give only 5.0 to 6.0 cubic meters of water from the fallen establishment to the full development stage.
From the ripening of the fruit, mix water again with 5.5 to 6.0 cubic meters and 2.5 to 3.0 intensive liters of fertilizers per cubic meter of water. Generally, fertigation happens at an interval of 3 to 4 days in summer and 2 to 3 days in winter, depending on the type of land in the area.
Fertilization and stock slurry of fertilizers:
For making the stock solution in 1000 liter capacity tank, 100 kg of urea, phosphate, 17:44:00. 100kg of Sulphate of Potash 00:00:50 and 75 kg of urea. The quantity is dissolved in water. First, pour these fertilizers into the tank by filling 200 to 300 liters of water, and then with the help of a stick, mix it well and fill the tank with water again to make the solution.
The above first two fertilizers are 100% water-soluble. IFFCO Fertilizer Company makes them at much lesser prices than the water-soluble fertilizers available in the market. In this way, after transplanting the crop with this stock solution, a 1.0-liter quantity dissolves in 1000 liters of one cubic meter of irrigation water in the initial stage. The drip irrigation system then distributes the solution through fertigation. And after that, reduction of the quantity of this round becomes 2.0. If 2.5 liters and the crop is completely in the flan, then dissolve 3.0 to 3.5 liters of water per cubic meter of water. Doing this normally occurs thrice in the summer season but fertigation should be twice.
In winter, do both irrigation and fertigation twice a week, but the duration and amount of irrigation and fertigation depend entirely on the season, crop, variety, type of land, and the method of growing the crop. Also, give the crop secondary elements and microelements as per the requirement. But keep in mind not to mix fertilizers containing calcium and sulfate together in one tank. Dissolve them in separate buckets etc. and give directly to fertigation.
Generally, there is no outbreak of any kind of pests and diseases in greenhouse tomatoes. But sometimes, you should uproot and destroy them immediately if there is an outbreak of viral diseases on some plants. Otherwise, it may spread to other plants with cutting machines.
For its prevention, it is also necessary that the workers who work daily in the greenhouse should not use any kind of tobacco, etc. inside the greenhouse and work only after washing their hands with soap. Every day the machines used for harvesting and sorting should also be disease-free. Such workers should work in open fields only after working in greenhouses.
Harvesting, grading, selling and yield of fruits:
Usually, you can pluck the fruits of the larger varieties with a knife. Harvesting should be by using scissors or a sharp knife. So that tomato plants and other crops are not harmed. The fruits are plucked only at the red color stage of full ripening and after harvesting is grading according to color, size, and weight and sold in higher markets.
If the fruits are to be sold after a day or two, they are kept in summer at 8 to 10 centigrade temperature. In winter they can also be kept at normal room temperature. Generally, a good environment-controlled greenhouse yields 10 to 15 tonnes of tomato per 1000 square meters of the greenhouse. But the yield completely depends on the climate, variety, and crop management.
Cherry tomato yields up to 2.0-3.0 tonnes can be obtained. The tomato is of high quality in it, so the growers should earn more profit by selling it in the higher market of big cities. This technology can be of great benefit to the farmer around the city.
About 10 to 15 tonnes of tomato can be obtained from a 1000 square meter greenhouse with a duration of 9 to 10 months. Whereas the yield of cherry tomatoes remains 2 to 3 tons per 1000 square meters.
Major diseases and prevention of tomato crop:
Humid Melting (Damping Off)
This disease occurs in the small stage of plants in the nursery. Due to its wrath, the stem part of the plant situated on the surface of the ground turns black and starts rotting and the young plants fall and die. The disease spreads through soil and seeds.
Before sowing, sow the seeds after treating them at the rate of 3 gm Thiram or 3 gm Captan per kg of seed. Build the nursery in raised land 4 to 6 inches above the surrounding land. Before sowing in the nursery, mix thiram or a gram captain at the rate of 4 to 5 grams per square meter in the soil.
The disease causes dark brown spots on the leaves of tomato plants. Due to which the plant dries up and dies.
- Blight disease is of two types:
Early blight disease:
In this disease, round, ring-like stripes appear on the boxes. The area around the spots turns yellow and sometimes they mix together to dry the leaves. Sometimes such spots even grow on the tons, causing the entire plant to dry up.
The disease attacks in later stages and causes significant damage in moist and cool environments. Due to this disease, watery, brownish round to irregularly shaped spots are formed on the leaves. Due to which in the end the leaves get completely scorched.
Spray Mancozeb@2gm or Copper Oxychloride@3gm/Ltr of water. Spraying should be done at an interval of 10 to 15 days after the fruits appear.
Foliage Crunch and Mosaic Disease:
These are viral diseases. Due to foliar disease, the leaves of the plants shrink and twist and become small and brown in color. Due to mosaic disease, dark and light yellowish-green spots are formed on the leaves. Insects play an important role in spreading the said disease.
Before sowing, apply Carbofuran 3-G at the rate of 8 to 10 grams per square meter in the soil. Dimethoate 30 EC 15 to 20 days after planting. Spray at the rate of 1 ml per liter of water. Repeat this as needed at 15 to 20-day intervals. After flowering, instead of the above-mentioned insecticides, use Malathion 50 EC. Spray at the rate of 1 ml per liter of water.
Root knot disease:
Due to this disease, the growth of the plant stops. Due to which the leaves turn yellow and fall. Flowers are produced in very small quantities.
Uproot the affected plant. Treat the soil with one to 2 kg of active ingredient Carbofuran.
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