Mustard has an important place among the major oilseed crops.
This crop proves to be a boon due to its success in both irrigated and rainfed conditions.
Furthermore, the most important aspect of mustard production technology is the selection of the appropriate variety for the particular area and the proper timing of the technique. And according to the agricultural activities of the state, the following recommendation for the production techniques of mustard and rye can help farmers get more income by investing less cost in mustard.
Description of improved varieties of mustard
- T 59 (Varuna)
The branches of this variety of medium stature are spreading. Being that, ripening period is 125 to 140 days, with the pods being small and grains are thick black in color. Also, its yield is 10 to 15 quintals in unirrigated areas and 15 to 18 quintals per hectare in irrigated conditions. Not to mention, it has 36% oil content. Evidently, this white roli is receptive, but it takes less as compared to Moyla Pusa Kalyani.
- RH- 30
Plants of this variety are 196 cm high, 5 to 7 primary branches, and leaves are of medium size, suitable for cultivation with wheat, gram, jo in both irrigated and non-irrigated conditions.
Moreover, this variety is also suitable for late sowing. It starts flowering in 45 to 50 days at this time and the crop matures in 130 to 135 days and its grains are coarse. Sowing it from October 15 to 20 can then avoid the wrath of Moyle.
- Bio 902 (Pusa Jai Kisan)
In this kiss, 160 to 180 cm high, the outbreak of white roli, Murjan, and Tulasita diseases is less than other varieties. When its pods ripen, the grains do not fall off and its grain is brown in color with blackness.
Not only that, its yield is 18 to 20 quintal per hectare, the maturity period is 130 to 140 days and oil content is 38 to 40%. Due to the low content of erucic acid and linoleic acid in its oil, there are fewer unsaturated fatty acids in the oil.
Therefore, its oil is suitable for eating. Being that, its 1000 grains weigh 5.8 grams. The beans also contain 12 to 15 grains.
- Pusa Bold
On the other hand, the branches of this variety of medium height are laden with beans and the beans are thick and its 1000 grains weigh 6 grams. Its maturation also only takes 130 to 140 days and gives 20 to 25 quintals/ha. Besides, it even contains 30 to 38% of the oil content.
- Vasundhara (R.H. 9304)
The plant of this variety sown on time and in the irrigated area is 180 to 190 cm. Height, leaf irregularly toothed, lower leaf surface lightly haired, white midrib, leaf tip pointed, lobed 4.7-5.0 cm. Furthermore, the long stem contains 14 to 16 seeds.
Meanwhile, the yield of this variety, which matures in 130 to 135 days, is 25 to 27 quintals per hectare. This variety is also resistant to horizontal fall and pod spraying and is moderately resistant to white roly.
- Maya RK 9902
Medium height (165 to 170 cm) variety matures in 130 to 135 days. In addition, suitable for normal time and irrigated sowing, this type of plant is normal branched, sagan pods are brown on maturity and seeds are black and thick and 1000 grains weigh 5.0 to 5.5 grams. The oil content is 39 to 40% and the yield ranges from 25 to 29 quintals per hectare. This luck is moderately resistant to leaf spot (Alternaria blight) and resistant to white roly.
- Jagannath (VSL-5)
This mustard variety approved in 1999 is suitable for sown and irrigated areas. Medium height (165 to 170 cm) variety matures in 125 to 130 days. This type of plant is bushy. The stem is also green, the knot (node) has a light purple color.
Seeds are medium-thick from gray to black in color and the weight of 1000 grains is about 4.8 to 5.0 grams. The oil content is 39 to 40% and the average yield is 20 to 25 quintal hectares. This variety is moderately resistant to leaf spot disease and white roly. The tree is resistant to falling.
- Aravali (RN- 393)
Ripening in 135 to 138 days, the height of this variety is medium (155 to 165 cm) and the stem is smooth, round, solid, and green, the leaves are light green, the flowers are yellow, and the tip of the pod 4 to 5 cm long is small and needle-like.
The seeds are dark brown and medium in size. The weight of 1000 grains is 4 to 5 grams and the oil content is 42%. The average yield of this variety, which flowers in 55 to 60 days, is 22 to 25 quintals. It is moderately resistant to white roly.
- Lakshmi- (Rh- 8812)
Approved in the year 1997, this variety is useful for timely sowing and irrigated area. This high height (160 to 180 cm) variety matures in 140 to 145 days. The plant of this variety is strong with a weeping stem with more height and more branches. Leaves are small and thin, but when the pods come, there is a possibility of getting stuck due to the weight.
The beans are thick and do not crack when cooked. The grain is black and the weight of 1000 grains is about 5 to 4 grams. The oil content is 40% and the average yield is 22 to 25 quintals per hectare. This variety is moderately resistant to leaf spot disease and white roly.
- Swarna Jyoti (RH-9802)
This variety is suitable for late sowing and irrigated areas. The plant of this variety is of medium height (130 to 140 cm). This variety, which flowers in 30 to 35 days, matures in 130 to 140 days.
Its leaves are sharply pointy, stem deeply waxy, primary branches 8 to 10, pods 3.5 to 4.0 cm long. 10 to 12 seeds per pod, 1000 grains weigh about 4.5 to 5.0 grams,
The oil content is 40 to 42%. This variety gives good yield even if sown till 15th November. Its average yield is 13 to 15 quintals per hectare. It is resistant to stunting and pod cracking, moderately tolerant to frost, and moderately resistant to white roly.
- Ashirwad (RK 01-03)
This variety are useful for late sowing from 25 October to 15 November. Its plant is 130 to 140 cm high, its leaves are sharply pointy, and flowers in 35 to 40 days. Pods are about 3.5 to 4.0 cm long, 10 to 12 seeds per pod, 1000 grains weighing about 3.5 to 4.5 grams. The oil content ranges from 39 to 42%. This variety is resistant to cross-drop and pod cracking, moderately resistant to frost, matures in 120-130 days, and gives 13 to 15 quintals per hectare.
- DMA- 1
This variety is a hybrid of mustard. This hybrid is also useful for timely sowing and irrigated area. High height (140 to 145 cm) variety matures in 130 to 140 days.
The oil content of 40 to 41% in it, its seeds are of medium size and the bar of 1000 grains is 4 to 5 grams. This hybrid is tolerant of diseases and pests.
- NRCHB- 506
This hybrid variety is also suitable for timely sowing and irrigated area. High height (150 to 160 cm) variety matures in 130 to 150 days. The amount of oil in it is from 40 to 42%. Its seeds are of medium size and dark color and 1000 grains are up to 5-6 grams. This hybrid is tolerant of diseases and pests.
Harvesting mustard crop in Asia happens in autumn. For this, low humidity from 18 to 25 degrees centigrade is very good. Rain, high humidity, and cloudy atmosphere at the time of flowering are not good for the mustard crops. If this type of weather happens, then there is more outbreak of Mahu or Chepa on the crop.
Loamy and light loamy soils are best for growing mustard. Which have a proper drainage system. Sowing it can also be in light soil.
Due to the small size of mustard seed, there should be no shortage of clod and soil water during the preparation of the field, otherwise, it will affect germination adversely. Growing mustard can be both through irrigation and rain.
Leaving the land for rainfed cultivation in Kharif entails plowing should be 4-6 times from time to time. This will then preserve a sufficient amount of moisture in the soil. Whereas for irrigated areas, land preparation can be after harvesting. In order to maintain proper moisture in the soil, the requirement is to keep it during planting.
If the infestation of termites and other insects is high in the field, then at the time of the last plowing for control, you should appply quinolphos 1.5% powder at the rate of 25 kg per hectare.
To increase production, 2 to 3 kg of Azotobacter and PSB in mustard. Mixing the culture with 50 kg of cow dung or vermicompost before putting it in the field.
For sowing 4 to 5 kg of seed per hectare in a dry area and 3 to 4 kg of seed per hectare is sufficient for sowing.
- Seed Treatment
Sowing the seeds should only be after treating the seeds at the rate of 2 grams of mancozeb or 3 grams of thiram per kg of seed. To avoid white roll, sow the seed after treating it with Metalaxyl Apron 35 SD at the rate of 6 grams per kg seed and spray Dithane M. 45 (0.2 percent) or Jetron (0.25%) in 30-45 days after sowing.
In mustard seed treatment with Ejectobacter and PSB culture. This saves 20% of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers.
Keeping a distance of 10 to 15 cm between the plants, 5 cm in rows. Sow the seeds deep. Keep row to row distance 30 to 45 cm. In unirrigated areas, keep the depth according to the moisture.
In rainfed areas, sowing mustard should be from September 15 to October 15, in irrigated areas from October 10 to 25. Sowing in the irrigated areas should be after paleva. Late sowing results in a severe reduction in yield. Along with this, the outbreak of Chepa and White Roli is more. At the time of sowing, observe the proper temperature, with the minimum average of 25 degrees centigrade.
Mixed cultivation of mustard
Mixing farming with rainfed gram gives more profit. If frost does not kill the crop, then you can easily spray the medicine. After soybean as intercrop, you can obtain more income by sowing gram 6 lines + 2 lines of mustard and giving 2 irrigations respectively at the time of branching and seed formation in pods. In rainfed areas, 30- 30 cm after two lines of mustard. At a distance of two rows of grams, there is more profit than the dwarf.
Manure and Fertilizer Management
The mustard crop grows more rapidly in the early stages. Therefore, the crop absorbs the nutrients quickly. Therefore, for an irrigated crop, prepare the field by putting 8 to 10 tonnes of cow dung per hectare in the field 3 to 4 weeks before sowing and before the rain in the rainfed area, 4-5 tonnes of decomposed manure per hectare in the field.
After one or two rains, you can plow the field by spreading it evenly. Apply 80 kg nitrogen, 30-40 kg phosphorus, and 375 kg gypsum or 60 kg sulfur powder per hectare in irrigated areas. Give half of the nitrogen and the full amount of phosphorus at the time of sowing. The remaining half quantity (nitrogen) should be given at the time of first irrigation. In rainfed areas, apply half the amount of fertilizer from irrigated areas at the time of sowing.
Irrigation in Mustard Crop
In the mustard crop, irrigation is given at the right time, the yield increases. If there is sufficient rainfall, the crop does not require irrigation. But if the rains are not on time, then two irrigations are necessary. First irrigation should be given 30 to 40 days after sowing (before flowering) and second irrigation at 70-80 days stage. If there is a shortage of water, apply one irrigation in 40 to 50 days crop.
- Weeding, Weeding and Weed Control
The mustard crop is sown in Rabi. In this, there is more problem of weeds mainly Bathua, Kharthua, Onion, Deer Khuri, Dubaghas, and Orobaki. Therefore, weed control in the early stage of mustard crops is absolutely essential. If the number of seedlings is more in the crop, then after 20-25 days, keep the distance from the plant to plant at 15 cm. Weeding and hoeing before the first irrigation is beneficial. This improves the growth of plants.
Weed control by chemicals in mustard crop
Weed control by chemicals can be done as follows.
- pre-sowing chemicals
Trifluorone 48 EC before sowing in the mustard crop. Spraying @0.75 kg of active ingredient/ha (commercial rate 1.5 ltr./ha) in 500 liters of water can be used to achieve high yield with effective weed control.
- Chemicals to be used after sowing and before germination is complete
Pendamethalin active 30 EC before germination in the mustard crop. @1.0 kg active ingredient/ha. 500 L (commercial rate 3.3 L/ha) or Oxadiargyl 6 EC. @0.09 kg active ingredient/ha. (Commercial rate 1.5 ltr/ha.) Spraying by dissolving in water gives more yield with effective control of weeds. Due to which weed control can be done in the mustard crops.
Plant Protection in Mustard Crop
- Painted Bug and Aramakhi
These pests cause more damage in 7 to 10 days after germination. To control them, apply quinalphos 1.5% or malathion 5% or methyl parathion 2%, or carbaryl 5% powder at the rate of 20-25 kg per hectare in the morning or evening.
Methyl parathion 2% malathion 5% or carbaryl 5% powder 20-25 kg per hectare for the prevention of molasses or malathion 50 EC in places with a water facility. quarter liter or dimethoate 30 EC. 875 ml or Pharmethion 25 EC. One liter or two and a half kg of carbaryl 50% soluble powder or chlorpyrifos 20 EC. 600 ml or acephate 75 sp. Spray at the rate of 700 grams per hectare, if necessary, repeat after 15 days.
- Diamond Butterfly
1 liter quinolphos 25 EC for prevention. Spray per hectare.
- Leaf miner
For its prevention, Kunalphos 25 EC is used. 600 to 700 ml or Methyl Parathion 50 EC. Dissolve peels in 500 ml of water. Where this spraying is not possible, apply Malathion 5% or Carbaryl 5% Methyl Parathion 2% powder at 20-25 kg/ha. If required, do second spraying after 21 days.
Uproot and destroy the parasitic plants before they become seeds and use disease-resistant species.
As soon as the disease appears, sprinkle 20 kg sulfur powder per hectare or 0.3% solution of 2.5 kg soluble sulfur by making a solution of 750 ml keratin in 0.1% water and sprinkle it.
Plant protection for pest control in mustard crop
To keep the crop free, adopt the following protection measures (spraying/spraying) in the standing crop.
- First Spraying/Browsing (7 to 10 days after germination)
Methyl parathion 2% or malathion 5% or carbaryl 5% powder at the rate of 20-25 kg per hectare is often used as powder or malathion 50 EC. quarter liter or dimethoate 30 EC. 875 ml or chlorpyrifos 20 BC. 600 ml Spray it by mixing it in water at the rate of per hectare.
- Second Spraying/Spraying
Spray the same medicines in the last week of December or as soon as moyla appears.
- Third Spraying
After 15-20 days of second spray/post flowering, apply Methyl Parathion 2% or Malathion 5% or Carbaryl 5% powder at 25 kg per hectare or Melarthion 50 EC. One and a half liters or chlorpyrifos 20 EC. 600 ml Or spray carbaryl 50% soluble @ 2.5 kg per hectare as soon as infestation appears, if required repeat the spray after 15 days.
- Jhulsa, Tulasita White Roli
As soon as symptoms of these diseases appear, spray one and a half kg mancozeb per hectare by making a solution in 0.2% water. Repeat this spray at 20 days intervals as needed. Before sowing the seed should be apron 35 sd. Sow after treatment at the rate of 6 grams per kg of seed.
If the aphids persist even after the third spray, repeat the spray or spray with any of the prescribed drugs.
In addition, sow two rows of gram after every ten rows of mustard for better control of aphids and butterflies, this will facilitate spraying.
To protect the crop from frost, spray 0.1% solution of sulfuric acid on the crop before flowering. This should be repeated during the period of potential fall.
Harvesting of Mustard Crop
The mustard crop is ready for maturity in 120-125 days. It is very important to harvest the crop at the right time. Because after harvesting late, the pods start cracking and the yield decreases by 5 to 10%. As soon as the color of the leaves and pods of the plant starts turning yellow, harvesting should be done, at the time of harvesting, take special care that the seeds of annihilating weed should not mix with the crop, otherwise the contaminated oil of this crop can infect humans. There will be a disease called “dropsy”. In mustard, cut only the twigs and tie them in bundles and bring them to the threshing, and after drying the crop for a few days, take it out from the thresher. Then after drying the seed on the floor, it should be filled in sacks in need of proper moisture and sent to storage.
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