Polyhouse ( Polyhouse farming) is based on a particular theory of the greenhouse effect. According to this principle, if a land area has polythene or any other cover, then the temperature of that land is 5-7 degrees centigrade higher than the normal atmospheric temperature. Also, the excess temperature also depends on the covering material.
Temperature friendly polyhouse
This increased temperature makes the area suitable for cultivation by handling it. Depending on the material, you can make these structures using polythene. You can also use polyhouse glass to make such a structure, which if it is a glasshouse material, then it is a net house. All these types of arrangements are called greenhouse in common language.
There is a huge difference in the production and requirement of horticultural crops. In order to reduce this gap, it is impossible to get the amount of cultivable area that is a requirement by traditional horticulture in view of the increasing population. Greenhouse technology is capable of producing more production from the area on the basis of productivity.
Using present vegetable technologies in the country can increase the annual availability of vegetables by 10 million tonnes. Cultivation of cucumber, various types of capsicum, and tomato is beneficial in poly house, whereas Gerbera, cornation, and rose have proved to be more beneficial in flowers. Along with this, there will be more employment in agriculture and rural areas, especially for educated youth and women.
Cultivation of desired crop
You can grow the desired crop in the polyhouse in any season. Polyhouse technology not only gives higher production (4 to 5 times) per unit area, as well as the price of off-season fruits, vegetables and flowers is very good. The quality of production obtained by this technology is of high quality. By adopting this principle, educated youth can earn good money by getting employment. State governments give grants to farmers for setting up green houses.
Pro-Tray Seedling Preparation
A plastic tray or pro-tray is a plastic tray with small chambers. Put the seedlings in these chambers and prepare them by keeping the trays in a controlled environment. The method of preparation of seedlings in Pro-Tray is as follows:-
Preparation of mixing medium
Fill the pro-tray with the soilless medium. This medium is a mixture of manufactured cocopite, perlite, and vermiculite. To prepare this medium, lay polythene on a clean place or a pucca floor, sprinkle water should on this mixture by adding two tagari cocopites, one tagari perlite, and one tagari vermiculite. While adding water, keep in mind that the mixture should neither remain dry nor too wet. Put the mixture in the cleaned and treated pro-tray. The tray thus filled is ready for sowing.
Vermiculite, perlite, and cocopite have their own importance in this medium. Vermiculite consists of two parts alumina and one part silica, and it is a dispersive mineral clay that has the highest water holding capacity. Perlite is a fine white powder, which increases air circulation in the medium as well as regulates the temperature of the medium. The cocopite serves as an organic material and binds the medium.
Sowing in Pro-Tray
Use improved varieties and treated seeds for sowing. Pro-tray has small chambers. Plant one seed in a chamber. Press the seed with the finger to such a depth that the upper part is visible on the surface. Then pour the medium into a thin layer. After that, provide light water with the help of a sieve. After watering, cover the pro-tray with polythene or thermocol sheet. Use an iron or wooden stand to keep it flat and above the ground.
Plant Maintenance in Pro Train
After 2 days of sowing, remove the polythene thermocol sheet covering the top of the pro-tray and give water except for one day. Also, keep the pro-tray in a room with insect repellent net so that the plants can be free of pest and disease. You can control the temperature by covering the chamber with polythene. In this way, the seedlings become transferable in 25 to 30 days.
While holding the stem by the stem, raise the chamber of the pro-tray with the finger upwards, allowing the medium to come out of the pot tray. In such a plant, the root is around the medium like a white thread. Transfer the seedlings to the field in the evening under a suitable environment and irrigate the field immediately after planting.
Preparation of Planting Bed in Poly House
To make a planting bed in a poly house, level the ground by removing pebbles, stones, and other residues in that area. After that, add 20 tonnes of pond soil, 1 ton of decomposed cow dung, 1 ton of yellow soil, and water should fill 1000 square meters. After three to four days of irrigation, make the beds by drawing about 1 foot high. The soil should not be too wet or too dry or the beds will not be able to form. A layer of about 10 cm of the medium should be mixed on the beds thus prepared, in which the following ingredients should be mixed.
|Coco peat||1 part|
|wood dust||3 parts|
|neem cake||1 part|
|rice bran||3 parts|
Plantation in the beds in poly house
|number of beds||18|
|plants per bed||124|
|Total number of plants in a ployhouse||2232|
- (50X45 cm) – 2232
- (50X30 cm) – 3350
- (50X60 cm) – 1680
Lay out two drip lines per bed on well-prepared beds. Also, maintain a distance of 50 cm between two drip lines. After that, plant one plant every 45 cm along with a drip.
Plants should be in a row. After that, plant another one at the place between the two plants in the front row. So that each plant will get enough space. Keep in mind that plants should not be face to face in both rows.
Dehydration of Planting Beds (Fumigation)
First of all, weeds and old crop residues should be removed by weeding the beds. Thereafter, 40-50 microns of the entire beds should be covered with polythene. Each pot should be filled with 10 grams of potassium permanganate crystals at an interval of 7 meters in each bed.
The polythene should be removed a little wherever the potradish is kept. After that, formaldehyde is taken in a beaker and poured into each potridish. Immediately after this, the polythene cover is done.
Keep in mind that as soon as formaldehyde is added to the potradish, intense gas is released in it, which harms health. Therefore, immediately after keeping that potridish covered with polythene, formaldehyde should be poured into the second petridish.
Complete treatment should be done very quickly. The entire unit is kept closed for at least 24 hours immediately after formalin is injected. The next day the beds are dug and transplanted by removing the polythene. By doing fumigation, many types of harmful organisms present in the soil are destroyed, due to which there are the least diseases in the crop.
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