One beneficial aspect of goat farming is that it is easily manageable by children and women. At present, you can gauge the popularity and success of the goat business from the fact that it is being commercialized in different provinces of the country. Training industrial houses and businessmen in goat care enables large goat farms to run successfully.
A small-sized animal like a goat is also contributing significantly to the agro-based economy. The continuous increase in the number of goats in the developing countries, despite the high annual slaughter rate in the last 2-3 decades, shows their social and economic importance. Naturally, the following factors are helping in increasing the goat growth rate.
Goat’s ability to convert food items unfit for human and animal species into high-quality nutrients (meat, milk) and other products/by-products (fiber, hair, hide).
- Its ability to adapt itself to different climatic zones. Due to this quality, you can find goats in different geographical areas of the country.
- Many of its breeds have the capacity to have more than one child.
- The goat becomes ready for reproduction sooner than other animal species after weaning.
- Use of goat meat by all sections of the society without any religious restrictions.
- Increasing demand for products and prompt marketing.
In the present circumstances, arable land is decreasing and pastures are shrinking. In such a situation, farming large pet animals is not a very profitable business. Therefore, a small animal like a goat meets this criterion.
The best time for breeding goats is from the second week of May to July. These goats give birth from the second week of October to the first week of December. Similarly, the season of November and December is favorable for breeding. The goats that conceive in this season give birth by March-April.
The success of any animal production-based business depends on the regularity and continuity of the reproductive cycle associated with the potential of the animal. Therefore, by adopting the reproductive cycle, the reproductive capacity of the animal can increase manifold. Due to the difference in the reproductive characteristics of Indian breed goats, there is no similarity in their reproductive capacity. Considering the whole reproduction as a cycle, then the processes related to it can be mainly of four stages which are related to each other. And this article will describe these processes.
Breeding in goats
The first phase of the reproductive cycle begins with goat breeding. Good breeding is the key to successful goat farming. The goat of each breed is eligible for conception only after attaining a certain age and body weight (sexual maturity). Like other animal species, the reproductive capacity of goats increases with age. Here the age of 2-5 years is maximum.
The ability to breed goats lasts till the age of seven years. After that, it starts decreasing. Goat is capable of giving babies up to the age of 10 years but most goat farmers remove them from their flock after the age of 7-8 years. Male goats remain fertile until 2-6 years of age.
The milk-yielding goat breeds have lower calving rates than those raised for meat.
Indian breed goats keep coming in season (summer) almost throughout the year, although its frequency varies. Healthy sheep goats keep coming in the regular-season cycle (Madachakra) at an interval of 17-21 days if they do not get pregnant. As a result, the breeding process continues throughout the year. It is not practical from effective animal management and economic point of view. The goat farmers should adjust the breeding in such a way that the weather is favorable for the health of the newborn lambs. Not only this, also maintain the availability of fodder resources to meet the market demand for sale in the future. Goats stay in heat (Madkal) for 24-28 hours and give the opportunity to the goats to mate during this limited period.
During this period, she gets pregnant when she gets insemination (natural or artificial). To find out the goats that came in Madkal, the goat farmer should rotate a teaser goat in a group of 50-60 goats for half an hour in the morning and evening. The following symptoms are clearly visible in the goats that came during Madkaal.
- More excitement, less food and water, and fussiness.
- Frequent urination and rapid tail wagging.
- Mounting on other goats in the herd and allowing other goats to mount on themselves.
- Swelling in the vagina and a small amount of transparent discharge from the vaginal tract, which is sometimes visible on the tail.
- Decrease in quantity of milk in milch goats.
- The labor pain is mild in the beginning and becomes intense later.
All these symptoms are an indication that the goat is about to give birth soon. Usually, the goat gives birth within 3-4 hours after the onset of labor. A goat that is bred for the first time takes a little longer. Before the baby is born, a bright membrane-shaped balloon appears. Most of the goats lay down and give birth.
It is not necessary that all the above symptoms appear together. Identifying seasonal goats can also be on the basis of two or three traits. Increasing the grain quantity of goats at the rate of 250-500 grams per day from 15-20 days before breeding has a favorable effect on the fertility percentage and the rate of conception. As a result, more children are born per quintal.
The timely breeding of seasonal goats is as important as the identification of seasonal goats. For the first time, 10-12 hours after showing the symptoms of the season (heat), conceive every goat in the season with the best breed of Biju goat or by artificial insemination method. If the goat remains in heat even after 24 hours, then get her pregnant again with the same goat at an interval of 10-12 hours.
The best time for breeding goats is from the second week of May to July. These goats give birth from the second week of October to the first week of December. Similarly, the season of November and December is favorable for breeding. The goats that conceive in this season give birth by March-April. In this way, if the goats are conceived twice in a year, about 60-75 percent of the goats give a baby.
In the absence of pregnancy diagnosis, goats do not get a proper diet and nutritious diet during pregnancy, which increases the chances of miscarriage and weak babies are born. Along with this, unnecessary expenditure has to be incurred on the maintenance of empty (non-pregnant) goats and due to not getting pregnant again in time, the expected profit from the goat farming business is not available.
Timely pregnancy diagnosis
The pregnancy test of pregnant goats is the second stage of the reproductive cycle. Its timely confirmation is necessary from the point of view of effective farm management and profitable goat farming. The gestation period of a goat is about 5 months (145-152 days). There may be other reasons for the goat not coming into the heat after 18-21 days of conception.
In the absence of pregnancy diagnosis, goats do not get a proper diet and nutritious diet during pregnancy, which increases the chances of miscarriage and weak babies are born. Along with this, unnecessary expenditure has to be incurred on the maintenance of empty (non-pregnant) goats and due to not getting pregnant again in time, the expected profit from the goat farming business is not available. The pregnancy rate in a healthy flock is 70-75%.
There are many methods of pregnancy diagnosis in goats, but there are only a few practical and suitable ones, which can be easily adopted by goat farmers. A goat that does not show signs of heat again after three weeks of conception is one way to detect pregnancy. Which is adopted by most goat farmers. Along with this, the correct pregnancy test should be done 80-90 days after conception after seeing the bulge of the abdomen (abdominal method) by veterinary medicine.
Gestation and childbirth
Pregnancy and subsequent delivery is the third stage of reproduction. The care and nourishment done during pregnancy determine the future of the progeny. The time of gestation is such when the goat has to feed its body as well as the lambs growing in the womb. It is necessary to give a proper diet to pregnant goats in the last 45 days of pregnancy.
Goat’s milk should not be milked during this period so that the child growing in the womb gets proper nutrition. It is necessary to give 150-250 grams of grain mixture mixed with gram and tur husk to each pregnant goat daily. Vitamin A should also be given if sufficient green fodder is not available, because the lack of energy and vitamin A increases the chances of miscarriage.
The timing of delivery in goats is as important as in other animal species. In herds where goats are conceived by natural method, the knowledge of the delivery process becomes even more necessary, because it is not possible to calculate the exact date of delivery. In goats, the last fortnight of pregnancy requires more attention as the signs of imminent delivery are not clear.
Light, digestible feed should be given to them at this time. Cut off unnecessary hair on the back of their body, especially around the external genitals. One week before calving, do not feed them in high and low places. It would be better if at this time they should be grazed around the enclosures or kept in the enclosure itself.
The following preparations should be done a fortnight before the expected date of bailment.
- Clean the cage (4′ by 4′) that will be used for the shed and allow it to dry. After a week, add lime to it and give a bed of dry grass or straw. Use these enclosures for each goat that is slaughtered.
- To keep each such goat with the goat, keep a wooden box of size 21′ by 21′ by 21′. In this also make a bed of dry grass or jute sacks.
- Goat farmers should observe the calving goats in the morning and evening so that the calving time can be easily predicted. As the calving time approaches in the goat, many changes are visible in it.
- For example, the goat’s restlessness increases.
- The size of the goat’s anion suddenly increases.
- The udders show luster and puffiness.
- Milk comes in the udders of most goats that are bred for the first time.
- Yellowish sticky and thick discharge starts coming out of the goat’s vaginal tract.
- The goat wakes up and sits in a secluded place in the herd.
- A few hours before its release, she gets up and down again and again and becomes inattentive.
In order to maintain the production capacity of goats, a continuous breeding cycle is necessary, so that postpartum goats can be re-breeded by early maturation. By adopting this process, the gap (interval) between two calls decreases, and the capacity increases.
As the time of delivery is approaching, the pain of labor starts in the abdominal part of the goat. The labor pain is mild in the beginning and becomes intense later. All these symptoms are an indication that the goat is about to give birth soon. Usually, the goat gives birth within 3-4 hours after the onset of labor.
A goat that is bred for the first time takes a little longer. Before the baby is released, a bright membrane-shaped balloon is released. Most of the goats lay down and give birth. The goat should not be tampered with during delivery.
Let the goat be born naturally. In a normal delivery, both the front legs and head of the lamb come out, after which the rest of the body comes out. The other lambs also come out of the baby feeder in the same order. Generally, the thrust of the goat comes out within 3-6 hours of calving. If labor is not normal, seek the help of a veterinarian.
A reproductive cycle begins with successful reproduction and ends with normal delivery. In order to maintain the productive capacity of goats, the reproductive cycle is necessary so that the goats can be re-breeded after giving birth to early maturation.
By adopting this process, the gap (interval) between two calls decreases, and the capacity increases. Small breeds (Jakhrana, Jamunapari, Beetle) have an interval of up to 130-171 days in the cycle of delivery and postpartum. For the repetition of the reproductive cycle, the goat farmer can re-insemination according to the breed in his flock, exploiting the production capacity of the goat. can.
Goat is capable of giving children up to the age of 10 years, but due to the decrease in their fertility with age, most of the goat farmers separate them from the flock at the age of 7-8 years. Goat farmers consider it better to take production from new goats instead of them.
Black Bengal Bakri
Black Bengal goat is commonly found in Bangladesh. But they are also followed in some North-Eastern states of India like West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa. They are followed for the production of meat.
Because this breed is a little weak in terms of milk production. Keep in mind that due to the name Black Bengal, these goats are not only black in color, but their color can also be brown, white etc. Goats of this breed take less time to mature than other goats. And in maturity, the weight of the goat is 25 to 30 kg, and the weight of the goat is from 20 to 25 kg.
- Features of Block Bengal Goat
- It has the ability to give birth to two or three goats at a time.
- Quickly adapts itself to any environment.
- Being small in size, eat less food. Due to which the cost of food comes down.
- Due to its small size, it takes up less space than other goats. Due to which their farming can be started even from a small place.
- By giving birth to two or three goats at a time, your goat farm can very quickly turn into a big farm.
- Goats of this breed have the ability to breed twice in a year.
This Boer goat breed is a breed of goats found in South Africa. But since they are also farmed for meat production. That’s why goats of this breed are also followed in India. It is said that the word Boer has been taken from the Dutch language. Which means farmer. Where in the time of 3 months the weight of goats of this breed ranges from 12 to 18 kg. Wherein in six months, their weight goes up to 18 to 30 kg. And when fully mature, the weight of the goat of this breed is 75 to 90 kg, the weight of the same goat remains between 45 to 55 kg.
- Features of Boer Goat
- Goats of this breed easily adapt to any type of environment whether it is cold or hot. That is, the health of the goats is fine, they do not fall ill.
- Goats of this breed eat good food i.e. eat more. Similarly, they also grow quickly.
- Compared to other goats, their weight becomes very high in a very short time.
- Since the goats of this breed have more disease resistance. Therefore, they can be followed even with very little care.
Jamunapari Goat (Jamuna Pari)
You can call this breed of goats an India-produced breed. It is said that this breed has been named after the Jamuna Pari Jamuna river. And the goats of this breed are farmed for the supply of milk in addition to the supply of meat. That is, the milking capacity of goats of this breed is also good. You will find goats of this species mostly in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Maharashtra, etc. in India. In maturity, the weight of this breed of goat is 50 to 60 kg, the weight of the same goat is 40 to 50 kg.
- Features of Jamunapari Goat
- Goats of this breed have the ability to breed only once in a year. About 60% of goats give birth to a single goat. Whereas about 40% of goats give birth to two goats.
- Goats have an average milking capacity of up to two liters in a day. And the time limit for giving milk is three and a half months.
- The meat of goats of this breed is delicious, as well as low cholesterol.
- Goats of this breed attain the ability to conceive only in about 18 months.
This breed is named after Sirohi, a district in the state of Rajasthan. Goats of this breed were earlier farmed in large quantities in Rajasthan itself. But now goats of this breed are farmed all over India. The goats of this breed are also farmed for the supply of meat. Although they also give milk, their milking capacity is only up to half a liter each day.
- Features of Sirohi Goat
- Goats of this breed conceive first at 20 months or 22 months of their age.
- Goats of this breed can conceive twice in a year. About 40% of goats give birth to a single goat and about 60% to two goats.
- The weight of goat of this breed in maturity is about 30 kg and the weight of goat is about 32 kg. The weight of goats in this breed is more than that of goats.
Goats of this breed are farmed in India and Pakistan. And they are farmed to supply both milk and meat. Because the goats of this breed also have the capacity to give 1 or two liters of milk in a day. Goats of this type of breed have the ability to adapt themselves to any environment.
- Features of Beetle Goat
- Goats of this breed can be farmed for both meat and milk supply.
- If we compare them with Jamna Pari then they are smaller than them.
- The weight of this breed of goat at birth is about 2.5 kg.
- When mature, the weight of goat of this breed is 50 to 65 kg and the weight of goat is 40 to 45 kg.
- Goats of this breed give their first pregnancy at 23 to 25 months of age.
- The average milking capacity of these goats is between 1.5 to 2.5 liters per day. And the time limit for milking is about 6 months.
Connected to India every area of goat farming business has been considered a great area in terms of | All you have to do to start your Bakri Palan business is to find such a place near your home. From where you can easily execute this business. But apart from this, it is very important to keep the following things in mind while choosing the land.
- Look for land in such a place where pure air, water is available in abundance.
- The place where green grass, some grains can be grown easily. Because by feeding the goats green grass, grain etc. produced by this land, you can reduce the cost of their food.
- Keep in mind that there should be such a market near your place of doing goat farming business where you can easily get the items and medicines related to your goat farming business.
- Think of
- goat farming business in rural India itself. Because land and labor are available at very cheap prices in villages as compared to cities.
- Keep in mind that your Goat Farming area should be such that all veterinary related services are available. If not, you’ll need to keep all medicines and vaccines on your form.
- It is important to have the facility of transport so that when needed, you can buy the items you need from a nearby market. And easily sell the product produced by your Goat Farm.
Housing is called making a house in Hindi. Since Goat Farming is being talked about here, so housing in this context should be taken to mean building a house for goat farming. Building a house for goats is a very important task for goat farming.
But in rural India, this process is probably not given an important place. Because people who do goat farming on a small scale. They do not build a separate house for the goats, they keep them with other animals. Due to which its effect on their productivity is clearly visible.
For commercial goat farming, it becomes very important that a separate place should be prepared for the goats to live, and the following things should be specially taken care of.
- To make your business profitable, you have to take special care of the place where the goats live. There should be no moisture, dampness in the place where goats live. Insect moths like rats, flies, lice, etc. should not be at the place of the goats.
- While building a house for goats, take proper care of the air passages. That is, one must leave some place for the pure air to come in.
- Make proper arrangements for drainage of water from the place where the goats live in advance. So that when you clean your farm with water, the water goes out easily.
- Try to make the goats’ living space two to three feet above the ground. You can use a plank etc. for this. Because wetness and moisture can cause disease in goats. So always keep the goats’ habitat dry.
- Keep in mind that any kind of water should not come to the place of the goats, whether it is due to rain or any other reason. This water harms the goats.
- There should be a proper temperature control system to regulate the temperature regularly. So that you can keep your farm warm in winter and moderate in summer.
- Take special care of cleaning all the equipment and utensils related to your goat farming business.
Apart from all this, you will have to take special care of their food and drink for your goat farming business. If you want, you can cook your own food at home to reduce the cost of feeding goats. For this, you will need the following materials.
Bran: Bran is made by adding a small amount of flour to the husk of the grain.
Maize pass, almond cake, gram peel, mineral mixture, salt, etc.
To make 100 kg goat food, you have to mix 45 kg bran, 25 kg maize pass, 15 kg almond cake, 12 kg gram peel, 2 kg mineral mixture, and 1 kg salt.
Some Extra tips
- Since goats are the backbone of your goat farming business. So always take good care of goats.
- Identify your goats, and the goat that you see is weak or unhealthy. To make him fit, he must take necessary medicines, vaccines.
- To always keep your goats healthy and make your goat farming Business successful. Keep the goats vaccinated from time to time.
- Keep in mind that you should never give contaminated dirty food to goats. Eating contaminated food can worsen the health of goats.
- Take more care of the baby goats than the goats.
- Maintain a good record of both income and expenditure of your goat farming business.