Hello there fellow farmers! Homestead Tractor is back with another article to help you out in your own farm. So, sit back, relax…because it’s chili time!
You can successfully grow chili in hilly and plain areas. At where irrigation facilities are available, sowing the seeds of chili occur about 6 weeks before the onset of monsoon, and transplanting its seedlings in the fields transpires with the onset of monsoon. Apart from this, sowing for the second crop happens during November-December and taking the crop is from March to May.
Pepper ( Chilli ) Capsicum is a fruit of the seed and is a member of Solenesi total. You can cultivate it to obtain chilies. Speaking of which, chili is an important salsa in cuisines. In the country, chilies are popular in the form of green chilies and as a spice. It is typically an addition to vegetables and chutneys.
You can cultivate it in both Zaid and Kharif crops. Chili cultivation is originally from South America and is now all over the world. Chilies make food spicy, especially vegetables. People also use it in the form of fresh green chili and dried red chili.
Chili grows well in a hot and humid climate. But it is necessary to have dry weather during the ripening of fruits. Being a hot-season crop, growing it cannot happen until the soil temperature increases and after the thawing of frost. Seeds germinate at 18 to 30 °C temperatures.
If there is a lack of moisture in the soil at the time of flowering and fruit formation, then pods, fruits, small fruits start falling. The optimum temperature for flowering and fruit production of chilies is 25 to 30 degrees centigrade. Cayenne peppers tolerate relatively more heat. Dewfall or heavy rain during flowering is harmful to the crop. Because due to this the flowers break and fall.
There are two types of species in the chili crop
Pusa Jwala, Pant C-1, Pusa Evergreen, G-4, Azad Mirch-1, Chanchal, Kalyanpur Chaman etc.
Hybrid species Tejaswini, Agni, Champion, Jyoti, and Surya, etc.
Its plants are small in size and the leaves are broad. The fruits are 9-10 cm long, thin, light green in color, which turn light red when ripe. Its average yield is 75 to 80 quintals per hectare for green chilies and 18 to 20 quintals per hectare for dry chilies.
Plants of this variety are upright and 60-80 cm tall. Fruits are 6-8 cm long, in clusters, 6-14 fruits per bunch, and appear straight upwards. Ripe fruits take on a bright red color. The average yield is 90 to 100 quintals for green chilies and 20 quintals per hectare for dry chilies. This variety is resistant to marodia, leaf curl, and mosaic diseases.
One to one and a half kilograms of good chili seed is enough to make enough plants to plant in about one hectare.
For the nursery, choose a weed-free land with fertile, good water holding capacity and drainage, where there is no shade of trees. It is also necessary to have a sufficient amount of sunlight in the cowshed. To protect the nursery from frost, there should be a good arrangement of water in November-December.
The length of the nursery should not be more than 2.33-3 feet up to 10-15 feet in width, because weeding and other works are difficult. The height of the nursery should not be more than 6 inches. Make a 2-2.5 cm deep groove at an interval of 5-10 cm and sow the seeds in it. Sow the seeds in rows. The spacing of the rows is between 5-7 cm.
Nursery Nursery Care
- In the nursery, give water from fountains as per the requirement.
- In summer, the moisture in the soil gets up quickly even by using agro net. So that sometimes after noon sprinkle water at the interval of one day.
- Arrange for drainage of water during the rainy season.
- Remove the grass cover 4 to 5 days after seed germination. Clear grass waste from the beds.
Plant Protection in Chilli
- Moisture disease
These people come mostly in nursery plants. In this disease, the stem near the surface starts wilting and the plant dies. To protect against this disease, perform seed treatment before sowing at the rate of 2 grams per kg of seed with a fungicide called Captan. Apart from this, dissolve Captan in 2 grams per liter of water and spray once a week in the nursery.
- Anthracnose disease
In this disease, dark brown and black spots of characteristic size appear on the leaves and fruits. To prevent this, spray a drug called Mancozeb or Carbendazim after making a solution of 2 grams per liter of water.
- Marodia Leaf Curl Disease
This is a terrible disease of chili. This disease mostly comes in the rainy season. Initially the leaves wither and growth stops. If it is not controlled in time, it causes severe damage to the yield. It is a viral disease that no medicine can control.
Whitefly spreads this disease virus, so controlling it is also through whitefly. For its control, uproot and destroy the diseased plants. Spray with insecticide Rogar or Metasystax @ 2 ml per liter at an interval of 15 days. You can also plant varieties resistant to this disease such as Pusa Jwala, Pusa Evergreen, and Pant C-1.
- Mosaic disease
In this disease, light yellow spots appear on the leaves. Later the leaves turn completely yellow and growth stops.
- Thrips and Aphids
These kits suck the sap from the leaves and are harmful to the yield. You can control by spraying a solution of Rogar or Metasystax 2 ml per liter of water.
Soil and field preparation
Although you can grow chilies in many types of soils, loamy soils with a good drainage system or organic matter are best for it. Where crop period is short, sowing and loamy loam soils are preferable. Keep in mind to sow rainy crops in heavy and well-drained soil.
By plowing 5-6 times and turning the pad, you will be able to level the land. 300 to 400 quintals of well-rotted manure of cow dung should be added at the time of tillage. The soil of the field should be made fine and leveled and beds of appropriate size are made.
Manures and Fertilizers
Around 300- 400 quintals of cow dung should be added to the soil at the time of tillage. It is recommended to apply 150 kg urea before transplanting, 175 kg single super phosphate and 2 kg murate of potash, and 150 kg urea afterward. Urea fertilizer must be given before flowering.
The best time for planting chilies in both plain and hilly areas is from April-June. Large-fruited varieties are sown in the field from August to September or earlier in June-July. Chili seed is sown about 6 weeks before the onset of monsoon, and its seedlings are transplanted in the field with the onset of monsoon.
Apart from this, for the second crop, it is done in November-December and the crop is taken in March. Sow Kharif crop in the month of June. One acre requires 300 grams of seed. There should be 60000 plants in one acre and two plants everywhere. Keep a spacing of 60 x 60 cm, keep the seed quantity approved in the nursery.
If the seed rate is high, then the germination is delayed. Plant growth is less and flowering is more. Give light irrigation to the beds before sowing. Then dig and apply fertilizer in approved quantity. To protect the plant from red worms, termites, earthworm worms, add 300 grams of carbofuran with manure and mix it in the ground.
The first irrigation is done immediately after transplanting. Later the crop is irrigated every 5-7 days in hot weather and 10-12 days in winter.
In the early stages of plant growth, two-three weedings are necessary to control weeds. The soil can be tilled two or 3 weeks after planting.
If deficiency of zinc, iron, or boron is observed, then spray 40 grams of ferrous sulfate, 20 grams of zinc sulfate, and 10 grams of boric acid in 10 liters of water for prevention.
Method of making a solution of microelements
Soak 250 grams chuna in 10 liters of water overnight. On the second day, prepare 1 liter of lime water from this round. Then mix 40 grams of ferrous sulfate, 20 grams of zinc sulfate, and 10 grams of boric acid in 1 liter of water and filter it. Mix 1 liter of lime water in 8 liters of plain water and make a round of 10 liters. Spray twice in the morning or in the evening at an interval of 7 days.
The ideal time for transplanting is between 15 August to 15 September. They are planted well by transplanting when light rainfalls. For good growth, after 5 to 6 weeks of sowing, transplant 15-20 cm healthy plants at 60 * 60 cm spacing. Plant 2 plants at a distance of 5 cm at one place. For an adequate number of plants, 10-15 days after transplanting, plant new plants in the vacant space. In the beginning, due to the slow growth, this action can be done two or three times.
In the irrigated areas, the average yield of green chili is about 85-90 quintals per hectare and dry fruit yield is 16-20 quintals per hectare.
For more farming guides, check out more of our blog posts today. Happy Farming!