Opium (Opium cultivation) poppies are very important medicinal crops.
You can find more than 42 types of alkaloids in it. Of which morphine, codeine, thiene, narcotine, and papaverine are more important. These are also helpful in making different types of medicines. Opium seeds contain about 52% oil.
Even for the production of crops on your farm, the government must approve and you cannot keep its produce yourself. On another note, opium cultivation gives maximum benefits as compared to other crops, but it is under the permission by the Narcotics Department. Also, cancellation of the permits of farmers who produce less than the prescribed quantity can happen. Therefore, do its cultivation very carefully.
Field selection and preparation
Clay or clay loam soils are suitable for sowing opium.
Manures and fertilizers
For 20 saws area, mix 2 tonnes or 2 quintals of castor cake before sowing in the field. For opium, give 24 kg of nitrogen, 8 kg of phosphorus/saw.
- At the time of sowing 13 kg 500 g urea and 50 kg single superphosphate or 17 kg 400 g, D.A.P. and 6 kg 300 g urea.
- With irrigation of 13 kg 300 g urea at the time of flowering.
In this crop, the outbreak of black wart and kodia disease starts from the young stage of the plants. To prevent this, mix the seed with 10 grams of Apron 35 SD. Sow the seeds only after mixing it.
About 1 kg to 1.25 kg seed is sufficient for twenty sawed land.
Make flatbeds, which are longer and less wide, such as 5 meters long and 2-3 meters wide, along with them make holes for irrigation. In the field, by making rows at a distance of one foot (30 cm) with a spade or 30 cm with a plow. At a distance of 4″ (10 cm) deep, close the rows by urinating manure. Then put the seeds in those rows by hand. And with a light hand, put the wood again on the rows so that the soil is slightly covering the seeds.
Do the first irrigation slowly after sowing so that not much soil is covering the seeds. For this, while irrigating, leave water in 8-10 beds at once. If after 4-5 days the upper surface of the beds becomes dry and hard, they have increased in germination, then apply light irrigation. After this, give irrigation at an interval of 10-12 days.
Irrigate at the stage of formation of buds, flowers, and buds in opium. Before opening the incision, make irrigation. Apply light irrigation even after the incision is over, which increases the seed production and makes the size of the seed bigger. If a strong wind is blowing, irrigate after the formation of knots.
Keep the crop weed-free. Perform weeding around 30, 45, and 60 days after hoeing. While weeding and hoeing, prune the plant in such a way that the distance from the plant to plant is 10 cm. Stay. For weed control, it is beneficial to spray isoproturon at the rate of 0.125 kg active ingredient per hectare on the third day of sowing. Use 25 grams of isoproturon active ingredient dissolved in 100 liters of water for twenty saws area.
Before opium, more benefits are found by adopting crop rotation of urad, groundnut, and green manure in Kharif. Sowing of maize once in three years in Kharif has also been found beneficial. In the Opium Ashwagandha crop cycle, opium should be sown in the first year and Ashwagandha crop should be sown in the second year.
Incision and lune opium
The right time to take opium is as early as the morning of the second day after the incision. Try pressing the doda with your hand. If the doda has become fit to make an incision. Generally, when the crop is 100-110 days old, it is the appropriate time to make incision. Do the incision work in the afternoon. But remember to stop the incision when it is cloudy or there is a strong wind. Make incisions on the pod diagonally, so that most of the cells are cut, more amount of milk leaks, and there is less chance of milk dripping from the pod, incision on the opium bud usually 3-5 times a day except on the other day.
Major diseases and pests of opium
Mriduromil Asita (Kodia nad Black Moss Disease)
Rosemary mildew (Kali Massi) causes great damage in all opium-growing areas. The outbreak of the disease lasts from the seedling stage to the fruiting stage. Warts cause brown or black spots on the leaves of the plant. The growth of the crop affected by this disease spreads on the lower leaves. The growth of the crop affected by this disease is reduced. Fungicide Metalaxyl 35 SD for seed treatment for the prevention of codia disease. (Apron) sow only after treating at 8 grams per kg seed rate. After this, when the disease appears in the crop, first spray of fungicide Mancozeb 64% + Metalaxyl 8% (Ridomil MZ-72 WP) soluble powder (0.2%) i.e. 2 grams of the drug per liter of water, the symptoms of the disease appear. But repeat the second and third spray at an interval of 15 days.
This disease is also called powdery mildew or powdery mildew. This disease is caused by a fungus called Erysiphe poligonii. The disease is caused by the conidia of the fungus. Symptoms of this disease appear on the lower part of the stem of the plant. Later this disease gradually appears as whitish on the leaves. Later white spots are formed. Gradually they turn black. When the outbreak of this disease is severe, sometimes white powder is also visible on the buds and the whole plant is covered with white powder.
To prevent this, spray Tebuconazole at 1.5 ml/liter/Lit of water on 70,85 and 105 days of sowing.
Management of Virus Caused (by Aphids and Whitefly) Yellow Leaf Disease (Mosaic)
- Management of Virus Caused (by Aphids and Whitefly) Yellow Leaf Disease (Mosaic)
Uproot the diseased plants and burn them or bury them in deep pits.
Insecticidal drug Imidacloprid 17.8 S. Ale. of 0.3 ml/l of water or dimethicone 30 etc. Do the first spray by dissolving in 2 ml/liter of water and repeat the second and third spraying with an interval of 10-12 days.
- Underground Insects Termites and Cattle Worm
Under this, those insects come which harm the roots of poppy plants by staying in the ground. Spray chlorpyriphos for prevention. Apply neem cake at the rate of /500 kg per hectare in the field.
- Integrated Management of Root Rot
Before sowing the crop, mix neem cake fertilizer at the rate of 500 kg per hectare or 80 kg in 20 saws area. Seed treatment with bio-fungicide Trichodrama churna @ 10 gm/kg of seed. After 35 and 60 days of opium harvest, fungicide drugs such as Hexaconazole 5 EC (0.1%) 1 ml. Do drenching in the roots of the crop by making a solution of water at the rate of 4 grams per liter or Mancozeb 75% powder (0.3%).
- Doda Braids
Kunalphos (25EC) 1.5mL to 2.0 ml Mix in one liter of water. (0.04-0.05%) 200-250 ml for biss saw area. Mix Kunalphos in 125 liters of water or Monocrotophos in 1 ml/lit of water. Bio Fungicide 10 Kg Trichoderma Powder 200 Kg Treat the soil by mixing cooked dung with manure. 100-150ml for biss saw Mix monocrotophos in 100-150 liters of water.
The opium crop suffers a lot from yellow. So save the crop as follows:
If there is a possibility of frost or frost, then irrigate immediately from the beginning. Irrigation before frost reduces the effect of frost.
You can reduce the effect of frost through smoke around the crop.
0.1% solution of sulfuric acid i.e. 120-150 ml. Mix sulfuric acid in 120-50 liters of water and spray it in 20 saw areas. Repeat the above treatment after 15 days.
On cultivating opium scientifically, opium milk production is about 65-70 kg. Per hectare, seed production 10-12 quintal per hectare, doda chura 9-10 quintal and obtaining morphine content up to 12-15%
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